The word technology has two de facto meanings: Etymologically and historically: the study of techniques. We then say technology More and more…

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Technology – Definition and Explanations

The word has two de facto meanings:

  1. Etymologically and historically: the study of techniques. We then say technology.
  2. More and more frequently, a set of methods and techniques around

    (Around is the name that avian nomenclature in the language French (updated) gives…)


    (In the intonation, the fundamental frequency changes are perceived as variations of…)


    as all that exists is often interpreted as the world or…)


    (The word technology has two de facto meanings:)

    . It is not confused in this second

    Second is the feminine of the adjective second, which comes immediately after the first or which…)

    1. If on a car, you use an ignition advance process

      (To ignite, the mixture air-gasoline, a gas contained in the cylinder must undergo a…)


    2. A combustion engine

      (The combustion engine is an internal combustion engine mainly used for…)automobile

      (An automobile, or car, is a land vehicle propelling itself using d’un…)


      (A century is now a period of one hundred years. The word comes from the Latin saeculum, i, which…)

    3. On the other hand, the automobile whose existence is accompanied by manufacturers, roads, highways, gas stations, garages, parking lots, etc. constitutes a set

      (In set theory, a set intuitively designates a collection…)

The engineering sciences (“The basic profession of the engineer consists in solving problems of nature…) have to cover the study of technologies relevant to their discipline. In the same branch, these change with time (Time is a concept developed by human beings to apprehend the…).

  • Guy Deniélou, founder of the Université

    (A university is a higher education institution whose objective is the …)


  • We can also make do with formulation

    (Formulation is an industrial activity consisting in manufacturing products…)

    , which defines it as , which is more concise and arguably clearer, if a little less precise.

Because of its appearance, the word is sometimes overused by marketing services (Marketing (also sometimes used — in 7% of cases, according to figures given by.. .) companies. Thus, ClearType is presented as a when it is only a , and it is difficult to see how it could not remain so. On the other hand, Wi-Fi (The wifi or wi-fi (pronounced /wifi/) is a wireless computer network technology put in…) is today for its part a like can be HTML for example.

In the second half of the 20th century, humanity had achieved the technological mastery necessary to extract itself from the surface of the globe for the first time and embark on the conquest of space.


th century, humanity had reached mastery

(Master’s degree is a university degree or diploma corresponding to the degree or title of…)


(A surface generally designates the superficial layer of an object. The term a…)

In the second half of the century, humanity had attained the technology necessary to extract itself from the world of the globe for the first time and embark on the conquest of space.

Origin and history

The word technology refers to the notion of artifact (An artefact or artefact is an effect (lat. factum) artificial (lat. ars, artis ). The term…) ( in Greek) and that of science (). The notion seems to have been first used in 1772 by a German physicist: Johann Beckman. Other etymologists place its appearance at the beginning of the 17th century. But its popular use actually predates the industrial revolution by a few years. It is apparently a Harvard professor, Jacob Bigelow, who systematized its use for the first time in his work (1829). Botanist and professor at the Rumford Chair at Harvard devoted to “the application of science to useful arts” (), Bigelow is recognized by certain American historians as a visionary but also a fervent promoter of technocracy. Promoter of a real “fusion” between the arts and science, Bigelow will devalue both the fundamental knowledge that does not articulate with a concrete practice (Concrete is a paste more or less hard obtained after extraction of a…) and the techniques (the arts in the words of the time) which are part of a tradition without the systematic recourse (In life sciences and in natural history, systematics is the science which has for…) scientific knowledge (A scientist is a person who devotes himself to the study of a science or sciences and who.. .). By promoting an increased sectoralization of scientific knowledge and a scientific distribution of tasks in the field of work, he will provide the nascent American capitalist society with a real model of education. It is moreover on the recommendations of the Harvard professor that the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) will borrow its name but also many educational orientations which will make it one of the most efficient technological research centers in the world (The word world can refer to:) (in the field of communication (Communication concerns both man (intra-psychic, interpersonal communication,…), < span>computing (Computer science – contraction of information and automatic – is the field…) and today of robotics and artificial intelligence).

The word “technology” did not mean for Bigelow simply the “useful arts”. He actually wanted to suggest the convergence (The term convergence is used in many fields 🙂 that was taking place at the dawn of the industrial revolution between the arts () and science (). A convergence hitherto compromised by the impossible articulation of fragmented scientific knowledge and the arts necessarily enclosed in a tradition (what the members of the American arts and sciences committee called “an empirical routine”).

Bigelow is largely part of le sillon (Le Sillon is a French political and ideological movement founded by Marc Sangnier…) of “technological millennialism” which fervently animates scientific enthusiasm and technique of Western nations (for the historian David Noble, we must go back to the Benedictine monk Erigena, promoter of salvation thanks to the “mechanical arts”). Secular millennialism which refers more or less to the idea of ​​a paradise on earth (Earth is the third planet in the Solar System by order of distance…) which is now embodied in progress technological (an idea largely indebted to the progressive philosophies of European history that emerged in the Age of Enlightenment). One of the major influences of this teleology of technical progress was undoubtedly Francis Bacon: the Chancellor of England (England is one of the four constituent nations of the Kingdom -Uni….) who initiated the experimental philosophy (
In art, it is about creative approaches based on a questioning of dogmas…), an inductive philosophy that marks a fundamental break (In music, the word fundamental can refer to several meanings.) with medieval scholastic approaches to science (for whom nature is apprehended through the prism of the dogmas of the Church: the “apriorist” method) . Bacon was a fervent millenarian deeply imbued with Puritan rationality (he will remain Anglican: duties oblige…).

Contrary to popular belief, the notion of technology and its international institutionalization maintain strong links with European and American religious expectations of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries (puritanism, freemasonry, deism, to name a few). ‘them). The Royal Society of London (London (English: London – /?l?nd?n/) is the capital as well as the largest city…), one of the first academies of “arts and sciences” (inspired by the Baconian Gospel of Science) provides a good example. Among its members are an incredible quantity (Quantity is a generic term of metrology (count, amount); a scalar,…) of deists (like Isaac (ISAAC is an algorithm capable of generating pseudo-random numbers, fallen within the domain…) Newton), Unitarians descended from Puritans (such as Joseph Priestley (Joseph Priestley (13 March 1733 in Birstall, West Yorkshire –…), the man (A man is an adult male individual of the species called Modern Man (Homo…) who discovered the oxygen (Oxygen is a chemical element of the chalcogen family, of…) and which created the first church (The church can be 🙂 Unitarian), the French Huguenot expatriated in England, Jean Desaguiller (who was the creator of the first lodge of speculative Freemasonry).We are too quick to forget this genealogy of the notion of technology which sheds a fundamental light tal on the hopes aroused in occident (The West, or western world, is a geographical area which initially designated…) since the industrial revolution by all these discoveries. Technology and progress therefore appear intrinsically linked from the outset.

The technique is carrier (A carrier is a sinusoidal signal of constant frequency and amplitude. It is…) of change on the sole condition of being accompanied by structural changes in society and its organization (An organization is) socio-political according to Jacques Ellul (Jacques Ellul (1912 – 1994) is a professor of legal history, Protestant theologian and… ) who is the great modern critic of technical society, with Ivan Illich (Ivan Illich (September 4, 1926 in Vienna, Austria – December 2, 2002 in Bremen,…) and Lewis Mumford.


  • BIGELOW, Jacob, , Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    (The Massachusetts Institute of Technology or MIT, in French Institut de technologie du …)

  • BIGELOW, Jacob, “Elements of technology”, , vol. 30, 67, 1830.
  • BIGELOW, Jacob, , Boston : Hilliard, Gray & Co., 1829.
  • MILLER, Perry, New York: Harvest Book, 1965.
  • ELLUL, Jacques, , Paris

    (Paris is a French city, capital of France and chief town of the region…)

  • ELLUL, Jacques, , Paris, hatchet, 1988.
  • NOBLE, David F., , New York: Penguin Book, 1999.

High technology and competitive advantage

Technologies based on recent scientific breakthroughs are usually referred to as high tech or new technologies. This area may or may not provide a competitive advantage to companies and geographies (competence center) who have been able to acquire a lead there: it all depends on the performance/price ratio offered by the lead in question, as well as its triangle (In Euclidean geometry, a triangle is a figure plane, formed by three points…) costs/delays/quality. The examples of companies having made false starts for having had too much of a lead on the market (Viatron, Exidy, Archimedes, AIXtron, etc.) seem just as spectacular as those of companies having acquired a dominant position over time without to have arrived chronologically first on the market (IBM versus UNIVAC, for example). Being the first brings advantages but also significant risks.


  • Lack of competition.
  • Recognition to the pioneer.
  • Development of humanity (satisfaction of its basic needs).
  • Facilitates life

    (Life is the given name:)


  • The techniques are new and not well known: you have to “wipe the plasters”, undertake an effort to inform potential customers.
  • Standards are not established, which can then require costly conversions to bring production into compliance.
  • When the rules for evaluating the return on investment are not clear, this can disadvantage solutions that turned out to be interesting in theory

    (The word theory comes from the Greek word theorein, which means “to contemplate, to observe,…)

  • New technology can cause pollution.
  • Some technologies can be dangerous to mankind.


  • Being equipped with telephone lines, France was able to quickly acquire a network

    (A network computing is a set of equipment linked together to exchange data…)

    (multiplexed) without being handicapped by the weight< p id="debutDefinition_160"> (Weight is the force of gravity, of gravitational and inertial origin, exerted by the existing…)


  • La forte implantation

    (The word implantation can have several meanings:)


    (Minitel is a telematic communication technology developed by the DGT (Ministry…)


    (The word massive can be used as:)


    (Internet is the global computer network that makes services available to the public…)

  • The need to amortize the very expensive technique for its laser

    printers (A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation)…)


    (International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is a multinational company…)


    (Xerox is an American company, based in Stamford ( Connecticut).)


  • This same company had to abandon its studies during the course of its studies, which had only a few subsequent repercussions on certain products within the framework of existing technologies (laser printers, mass memories

    (The term mass is used to designate two quantities attached to a…)

    automatic< /span>

    (Automatic control is part of the engineering sciences. This discipline deals with…)

    < span>data

    (In information technology (IT), data is a basic description, often…)

    file system

    (A file system or filesystem in English)

    < /span>

  • The advance of England and France in the field of the superb and efficient Concorde

    (Le Concorde is a supersonic transport aircraft built by the association of…)

  • That of Europe

    (Europe is a land region that can be considered as a…)< /p>air transport

    (Air transport is the economic sector that includes all the activities of…)


    (Satellite may refer to:)


    (The Airbus A380 is a four-engine long-haul civil aircraft built by Airbus in Germany,…)

    < /span>instant

    (The instant designates the smallest constituent element of time. The instant is not… )

Best available technology

The emergence of complex expectations of civil society, concerning sustainable development (Sustainable development (translation of Sustainable development) is a new conception…) and corporate social responsibility , translates into complex criteria on three pillars of performance: economic, social and environmental, to which must be added governance.

These sustainable development requirements have been transposed for twenty years in the concept of best available technology.

Compliance with these criteria ensures the sustainability of products and services, which is likely to provide a sustainable competitive advantage, provided that the rules for evaluating the return on investment are clear.


Technological advance can therefore in no way be considered as the winner every time. It is only one among many. The important thing is less to follow a fashion (expensive considering the investments) than to anticipate current and future needs as little as possible. Technologies currently emerging, but of which we do not know well, in 2004, the future are for example:

  • micromachines
  • quantum computers
  • the gene therapy

    (Gene therapy is a therapeutic strategy that consists of …)

    < /span>


Industrial Computing

(Industrial Computing is a technological branch of applied computing that covers…)Embedded computing

(The term embedded computing refers to the software aspects found inside.. .)


(An automaton is a device that behaves automatically, i.e. i.e. without…)


(Grafcet is a mode of representation and analysis of an automatism, particularly…)


(Biology, commonly referred to as “bio”, is the life science….)


(Medicine (from the Latin medicus, “that heals”) is the science and…)< /p>Biotechnology

(The OECD defines biotechnology as “the application of principles…)< /p>Bioremediation

(Bioremediation is a set of techniques consisting in increasing the biodegradation or the…)


(Chemistry is a natural science divided into several specialties , to…)


(Petrochemistry is the science concerned with the use of compounds…)


(Pharmacy (from Greek φάρμακον/pharmakôn…)

The fuel cell

(A fuel cell is a cell where electricity is produced… )


Telecommunication ~ Telephone

(The telephone is a communication system, originally designed to transmit voice…)Television

(Television is the transmission, by cable or radio waves, of images or. ..)

Radio Amateur

(The International Telecommunications Union defines the activity of operators of …)



(Engineering refers to all the functions ranging from design and studies to the…)

Software engineering

(If we refer to the ministerial decree of December 30, 1983 relating to the ‘enrichment of…)


(Microcomputing is a term for “little ones” (the prefix…)

Computer Network< /span>

(A computer network is a set of equipment linked together to…)

Computer< /span>

(A computer is a machine equipped with a processing unit allowing it…)


(Digital information is information…)


(Display refers to the application of a surface of script paper in a public place (not du…)

Technique of

Mechanical display

(The mechanical display allows information to be displayed using mechanical elements. )


(Cartographic projection is a set of techniques for representing the surface of.. .)


In physics, plasma describes a state of matter made up of charged particles…)

Electronic ink

(Electronic paper, also called E-paper, is a display technique seeking to imitate…)

Financial Engineering

Stochastic calculus

(Stochastic calculus is the study of time-dependent random phenomena. At this…)< /p>


(A material is a material of natural or artificial origin that man shapes to en…)

Metallic Materials


(Iron is a chemical element, symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is…)

and alloys of iron

  • Steel

    (Steel is a metal alloy used in the fields of construction…)

  • Stainless Steel

    (Stainless steels play a great role in countless areas: life…)

Non-ferrous metals and alloys

  • Copper

    (Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. Copper…)< /p>

    • Brass
    • Bronze

      (Bronze is the generic name for the alloys of copper and tin. The term brass…)

  • Aluminium

    (Aluminium is a chemical element, with symbol Al and atomic number 13….)< /p>

    • Aluminium alloys for wrought
    • Aluminum alloys for casting

      (Casting is one of the metal forming processes which consists of casting. ..)

Mineral materials

  • Glass

    (Glass, in everyday language, designates a hard, fragile material or alloy…)< /p>

    • manufacture ~ floats
    • treatments ~ “glass coating”

Organic materials

  • Paper

    (Paper (from the Latin papyrus) is a material made from fibers…)

    • History of Papermaking
    • Mechanical properties of paper
    • Paper machine
  • Textiles
  • Plastics
  • Composites
  • Wood

Other material concepts

  • Materials that can be used for friction

    (Friction is an interaction that opposes the persistence of a relative movement between …)

  • Nanomaterial

    (A nanomaterial is a material with special properties because of its…)


(In common parlance, mechanics is the domain of machines , engines, vehicles, organs…)

industrial, electrical engineering


Adjustment ~ Damping ~ Isostatism (The purpose of isostatism is to determine the relative position of two objects for a phase of…) ~ Rheology ~ Tribology, friction, wear, lubrication ~< /p>

Nuclear techniques

Nuclear power plant (A nuclear power plant is an industrial site that uses the fission of atomic nuclei to…) ~ Atomic engine (An atomic engine is an engine that uses a nuclear reaction, nuclear fission or…)



Production, distribution and use of the

Steam engine (The steam engine is an invention whose most significant developments date from…)

Hydraulic energy

(Hydraulic energy is the energy brought into play when moving or accumulating a…)

Pneumatic energy (Compressed air used in pneumatic systems is initially air at the…) ~ Turbine (A turbine is a device rotary intended to use the force of a fluid (water, steam, air,…)

Electrical engineering

(Ethymologically electrical engineering designates the study of the technical applications of …)

Power station (A power station is an industrial site intended for…) ~ Fuel cell (A fuel is a material that , in the presence of oxygen and energy, can be…) ~ Power supply (The term power supply refers to a set of systems capable of supplying…) ~ Lighting ~ Household appliances (The term household appliance characterizes all appliances and tools using electricity and,…) ~ Motor (A motor is a device that transforms non-mechanical energy ( wind turbine, chemical,…) electrical ~ Electric generator (Electric generators are devices for producing energy…) ~ Electrical protection (The fact is that electricity is energy: invisible, odorless, inaudible and, of a…)

Heat engines

Motor (A motor (from Latin mōtor: “one that moves”) is a device…) to combustion (Combustion is an exothermic chemical reaction of When the…) internal (In France, this name designates a doctor, a pharmacist or a dental surgeon, at the…) ~ External combustion engine ~ Jet engine (A jet engine is an engine based on the projection of a gas or liquid producing…)


(A gas is a collection of atoms or molecules very loosely related and…)


(Vacuum is usually defined as the absence of matter in a spatial zone.)

Technique deset du, refrigeration

Refrigerator (A refrigerator (or fridge or fridge in colloquial parlance) is an appliance…) ~ Vacuum technology

Fluid Technique


Getting raw parts

Stamping ~ Extrusion ~ Foundry ~ Forging ~ Sintering (Sintering is a process of manufacturing parts by heating a…) ~ Casting ~ Welding (The Welding (See article on the theory of welding) is a means of permanent assembly. It has…) ~ Heat treatment (The heat treatment of a part consists in subjecting it to transformations of structure…) ~ Surface treatment ~Spinning

Mechanical components, transmissions, handling, …

  • Adjustment

    (Adjustment includes actions aimed at perfecting mechanical parts (removing small parts…)

  • Assembly
  • Mechanical assembly : snap ring

    (Snap rings are mechanical assembly components generally mounted in…)

  • Spring ~


(Matter is the substance that makes up any body having a tangible. Ses…)

Finishing of mechanical parts by removing

Machining ~ Turning ~ Milling (Milling is a process of machining by removing material. It is characterized by the…) ~ Threading


(Mechatronics is the synergistic and systemic combination of mechanics, electronics…)

(Link: Mechanics & Electronics)


(A sensor is a device transforming the state of an observed physical quantity into a…)< /p>


(Physics (from the Greek φυσις, nature) is etymologically the…)


Electronics ~ Electricity ~ Electrical engineering ~ Production of electricity

(Electricity is a physical phenomenon due to the different electric charges of the…)


  • Audio media (CD, mini-disc, cassette, vinyl

    (Vinyl is, according to IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry),…)

  • Audio standards (MP3, OGG

    (Ogg is the name of the main project of the foundation whose goal is to propose to the…)


    (Hi-Fi is the abbreviation from the English term “High Fidelity”, which…)

  • Audio connectors (cinch-RCA-line, XLR-barrel, jack, DIN-midi…)


(Transportation is carrying something, or someone ‘one, from one place to another, the most…)

Automotive ~ Aviation

(Aviation is an aerial activity defined by all the actors,…)< /p>Aeronautics

(Aeronautics includes science and technology aimed at building and.. .)


(An escalator, also called an escalator, escalator or Escalator ( brand), is…)

Clean vehicle

(A clean vehicle is a vehicle producing little or no polluting emissions…)


(Logistics is the activity that aims to manage the physical flows of a…)

Merchant Navy

(The term Merchant Navy refers to anything that is the subject of, or is related to, the…)

Maritime Transport< /span>

(Maritime transport is the most important mode of transport for transporting goods…)

List of articles on transport

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Evidence for Ancient High Technology – Part 1: Machining


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  • Post date: 2020-01-16
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    Part 3:
    An investigation into the evidence for ancient high technology found across the world. We look into the evidence for machining and advanced methods of shaping and polishing stone, as well as the varying levels of technology found on ancient sites and artifacts.
    I spend a bit of time explaining the context around the claim for ancient high technology, as well as address the mainstream attachment to the ‘status quo’ story of history.

    In part 2 (coming soon) we’ll get into logistics and construction methodologies, and take a deep dive into the evidence for advanced precision in ancient artifacts both big and small, and I’ll give my opinions on what I think it is that we’re really looking at when we seen these types of objects.

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Best 20 Definitions of Technology

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